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Bovine colostrum is well documented as containing elevated immunoglobulins that serve as immune protectants for the newborn.

In addition, bovine colostrum has been shown to demonstrate specific binding against many pathogens, as shown in section 4.2.

The following diagram is a simple illustration of an IgG molecule. The two circular sections at the top of the molecule represent the binding sites - this is where the IgG attaches to a foreign body such as a pathogen. This prevents the pathogen interacting with anything else, thereby preventing infection or disease.



In Vitro Binding Studies with Colostrum

Binding studies comparing Hyperimmune milk, Colostrum milk powder and Skim milk Powder were done by the Microbiology Department at the University of Otago to establish the ability of Colostrum to bind specifically with various bacterial and yeast pathogens including Candida albicans, Helicobacter pylori, E. coli spp and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Colostrum demonstrated a very high rate of specific binding with these species. Further studies are in progress to cover the entire gastrointestinal bacterial pathogen range, examples of which are shown in the following table.

Pathogen Causes diease;

Candida albicans

- Candidiasis, Thrush

E.coli 0157

- Food poisoning

Helicobacter pylori

- Duodenal ulcers / Stomach cancer

Propionibacterium acnes

- Acne/skin infections

Klebsiella pneumoniae

- Lung infections

Staphylococcus aureus

- Hospital 'staph' / infects after surgery

Streptococcus pyogenes

- Skin and lung infections

Streptococcus mutans

- Dental caries
- Periodontal gum disease

Yersinia enterocolitica

- Digestive disease

Staphylococcus epidermidis

- Skin disease

Salmonella typhimurium

- Food poisoning

Salmonella enteritidis

- Food poisoning

Haemophilus influenzae

- Lung Infections

Campylobacter jejuni

- Lower bowel disease

Listeria monocytogenes

- Lung diseases


(Reference : Data of File University of Otago, New Zealand)


4.2.1 Binding Graphs

Relative Antibody Titre

For an explanation as to the test methods (ELISA) used to determine the graphs, refer to Appendix 1. The graphs indicate relative titre determinations for each pathogen tested. Titre is an expression of antibody concentration and can be defined as the greatest an antibody containing solution can be diluted to achieve a dose response. This sometimes is referred to as limiting dilution. The greater the dilution the greater the titre (concentration) of antibody present. Thus an antibody containing solution possessing a relative antibody titre of 1/10,000 contains 10 times the antibody of one with a relative titre of 1/1,000.



a) Antibody activity to Salmonella typhimurium

This graph shows that the Colostrum binds the bacteria strongly and for a long time. The Y axis "absorbance" is a measurement of the specific binding activity and the X axis shows the binding capacity of the various test ingredients when diluted to more than 10,000x original strength.



It can be noted that SMP -Skim Milk Powder has no effect and does not bind the bacterium at all. The high protein milk powder has some 0activity when concentrated but loses its effect when diluted - dilution is what happens when the ingredients are swallowed and diluted in the gastrointestinal body fluids.

A similar result of specific binding over a wide dilution range is also seen with other pathogens such as Candida albicans and others....

b) Antibody Activity to Candida albicans


Other examples of pathogen binding capacity include:

c) Antibody activity to Helicobacter pylori

Helicobacter pylori is recognised by the World Health Organisation (W.H.O) as a cause of acute and chronic Gastric and Duodenal Ulceration and also implicated by the W.H.O as a causative participant in Stomach cancer.



Again, Colostrum can be shown to specifically and strongly bind Helicobacter pylori and to continue this binding action even when diluted in the digestive fluid system by more than a million times...

d) Antibody activity to E. coli 0157

Another similar profile is shown with Escherichia coli below. E. coli 0157:H7 is a cause of severe Food Poisoning and it can been seen that Colostrum binds this pathogen specifically and for a long time even when diluted more than a million times.



e) Antibody activity to E. coli 0111



f) Antibody activity to Klebsiella pneumoniae



g) Antibody activity to Clostridium difficile



h) Antibody activity to Yersinia enterocolitica



i) Antibody activity to Campylobacter jejuni



Growth Factors and Other Proteins

Bovine colostrum contains many growth factors that have been shown in numerous scientific studies to assist with skin and microscopic tissue/muscle healing and repair.

Growth Factors

IGF-1

1540

ng/g

IGF-2

748

ng/g

TGF-beta 1

18

ng/g

TGF-beta 2

863

ng/g


Immune/Antibacterial enzymes

IgG1

20 - 200

mg/ml

IgG2

12

mg/ml

IgM

0.0031

mg/g

IgA

2.81

mg/g

Lactoferrin

5 - 100

mg/L

Lysozyme

0.14 - 0.7

mg/L

Lactoperoxidase

11 - 45

mg/L


4.4 Amino Acid, Vitamin and Mineral Content

In addition, due to the bovine Colostrum Colostrum is rich in vitamins and minerals:

4.4.1 Typical Vitamin Content

Vitamin B2

1.12

mg per 100g

Vitamin B6

0.03

mg per 100g

Vitamin B12

10.00

mg per 100g

Vitamin A

100

IU per 100g

Vitamin C

2.5

mg per 100g


4.4.2 Typical Amino Acid Profile

(expressed as milligrams amino acid per gram protein)

Alanine

23.0

Arginine

24.8

Aspartic acid

52.2

Cystine

8.4

Glutamic acid

126.3

Glycine

18.1

Histidine

20.2

Isoleucine

54.9

Leucine

43.6

Lysine

44.8

Methionine

17.2

Phenylalanine

37.6

Proline

75.3

Serine

46.9

Threonine

35.4

Tryptophan

11.5

Tyrosine

39.1

Valine

44.5


4.4.3 Typical Mineral Profile

(expressed in mg/100g powder unless stated)

Iron

0.81

Chloride

238

Calcium

1060

Zinc

5.6

Phosphorus

850

Magnesium

86.5

Sodium

220

Manganese

0.086

Potassium

570

Heavy metals as lead

<10 mg/kg


DISCLAIMER:
The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food And Drug Administration. It is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent disease. The statements are for informational purposes only and is it not meant to replace the services or recommendations of a physician or qualified health care practitioner. Those with health problems or pregnancy are specifically advised that they should consult their physician before taking colostrum or any nutritional supplement.

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