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Scientific and medical Research Related to Colostrum


Athletic Performance

Berk LS, Nieman DC, Youngberg WS, et al. (1989) The effect of long endurance running on natural killer cells in marathoners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 22:207-212.

Buckley JD, et al. Effect of An Oral Bovine Colostrum Supplement Intact on Running Performance.

Burke E. (1996) Colostrum as an athletic enhancer and help for AIDS. Nutrition Science News.

Clark J. (1996) Uses of creatine phosphate and creatine supplementation for the athlete. Scientific and Clinical Perspective.

Mero A, et al. (1997) Effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on serum IGF-1, IgG, hormone, and saliva IgA during training. Journal of Applied Physiology. 83:1144-1151.

Sparling PB, Nieman DC, O'Connor PJ. (1993) Selected scientific aspects of marathon racing: an update on fluid replacement, immune function, psychological factors and the gender difference. Sports Medicine. 15:116-132.


General Information

Bitzan MM, Gold BD, Philpott DJ, et al. (1998) Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobactor mustelae binding to lipid receptors by bovine colostrum. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 177:955-961.

Blum J, Hadorn U, Sallmann H, and Schuep W. (1997) Delaying colostrum intake by one day impairs plasma lipid, essential fatty acid, carotene, retinal and a-tocopherol status in neonatal calves. American Society for Nutritional Sciences.

Cavalli-Sforza LT, Strata A. (1987) Double-blind study on the tolerance of four types of milk in lactose malabsorbers. Human Nutrition: Clinical Nutrition. 40C:19-30.

Cenacchi T, Baggio C, and Palin E. (1987) Human tolerability of oral phosphatidylserine assessed through laboratory examinations. Clinical Trials Journal. 24.

Efigenia M, Povoa B, Moraes-Santos T. (1997) Effect of heat treatment on the nutritional quality of milk proteins. International Dairy Journal. 7:609-612.

Fishbein L, Kaplan M, Gough M. (1988) Fructooligosaccharides: A review. Vat Hum Toxicology. 30:104-108.

Ghidini A, Hicks C, Lapinski RH, Lockwood CJ. (1997) Morbidity in the preterm infant with mature lung indicies. American Journal of Perinatology. 14:75-78.

Jensen R. (1998) Human milk lipids as a model for infant formulas. Lipid Technology. 34(12):1243-71

Joseph M. and Flesch A. (1998) Research shows colostrum to be one of nature’s most potent, broad-spectrum substances. Chiropractic Journal.

Jochims K, Kaup FJ, Drommer W. (1994) Immunoelectron microscopical demonstration of the absorption of colostral IgG by small intestinal enterocytes in newborn rats. Research in Veterinary Science. 57:146-151.

Klagsbrun M. (1978) Human milk stimulates DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation in cultured fibroblasts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA. 75:5057-5061.

Kume S, Tanabe S. (1993) Effect of parity on colostral mineral concentrations of holstein cows and value of colostrum as a mineral source for newborn calves. Journal of Dairy Science. 76:1654-1660.

Le Dividich J, Herpin P, Paul E, Strullu F. (1997) Effect of fat content of colostrum on voluntary colostrum intake and fat utilization in newborn pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 75:707-713.

Li-Chan E, Kummer A, Lasso J, Kitts D, Nakai S. (1995) Stability of bovine immunoglobulin to thermal treatment and processing. Food Research International. 28:9-16.

McConnell MA, Brooks HJL, Borissenko MB, Buchan GA. A comparative study of immunoglobulin levels and anti-inflammatory activity in four milk products. Journal of Dairy Science. Publication forthcoming.

Nitsch A, and Nitsch F. (1998) The clinical use of bovine colostrum. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. 13.

Wit JN. (1998) Nutritional and functional characteristics of whey proteins in food products. Journal of Dairy Science. 81:597-608.

Walker WA. (1999) What is the role of nucleotides and polyamines in breast milk? Acta Peadiatrica. 88:1313-1315.

Warny M, Fatima A, Bostwick E, et al. (1998) Bovine immunoglobulin concentrate-Clostridium difficile retains C difficile toxin neutralizing activity after passage through the human stomach and small intestine. Gut. 44(2):212-7.

Wieczorek Z, Zimecki M, Janusz M, Staroscik K, Lisowski J. (1979) Proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum: its effect on skim permeability and on the immune system. Immunology. 36:879-881.

Yamamoto A, Wada O, Suzuki H. (1987) Purification and properties of biologically active chromium complex from bovine colostrum. American Institute of Nutrition. 118(1):39-45.

Zhang T, Iguchi K, Mochizzuki T, Hoshino M, Yanaihara C, Yanaihara N. (1990) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-associated peptide immunoreactivity in bovine colostrum. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 194(3):270-3.


Growth Factors

George-Nascimento, C., Lowenson, Jonathan, Borissenko, M., Calderon, A., Medina-Selby, A., Kuo, J., Clarke, S., Randolph, A. Replacement of a Labile Aspartyl Residue Increases the Stability of Human Epidermal Growth Factor. Biochemistry 29 No. 41(1990) 9584 - 9591.

Antonio J. (1998) Can bovine colostrum enhance levels of IGF-1? Muscle and Fitness.

Ballard F, Wallace J, Francis G, Read L, Tomas F. (1996) Des (1-3) IGF-I: a truncated form of insulin-like growth factor-I. International Journal of Cellular Biology. 28:1085-1087.

Bhora F, Dunkin B, Batzri S, et al. (1995) Effect of growth factors on cell proliferation and epithelialization in human skin. Journal of Surgery Res. 59:236-244.

Bricker D. (1991) Colostrum: Implications for accelerated recovery in damaged muscle and cartilage, prevention of some pathogenic disease. The American Chiropractor.

Burrin D, Davis T, Ebner S, Schoknecht P, Fiorotto M, Reeds P. (1997) Colostrum enhances the nutritional stimulation of vital organ protein synthesis in neonatal pigs. American Society for Nutritional Sciences.127(7):1284-9.

Burrin DG, Shulman RJ, Reeds PJ, Davis TA, Gravitt KR. (1992) Porcine colostrum and milk stimulate visceral organ and skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal piglets. Journal of Nutrition. 122:1205-1213.

Cass TL. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, Somatomedin C) blood levels are not associated with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels or prostate cancer: A study of 749 patients. Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Demarco C. (1998) Anti-aging breakthrough: Homeopathic growth factors. Let's Live.

Francis G, Read L, Ballard J, et al. (1986) Purification and partial sequence analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 from bovine colostrum. Journal of Biochemistry. 233:207-213.

Francis G, Upton F, Ballard J, McNeil K, Wallace J. (1988) Insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 in bovine colostrum. Journal of Biochemistry. 251:95-103.

Fryburg D. (1995) Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 enhance human skeletal muscle protein anabolism during Hyperaminoacidemia by different mechanisms. Journal of Clinical Investigations. 96:1722-1729.

Ginjala V, Pakkanen R. (1998) Determination of transforming growth factor-B1 (TGF-B1) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in bovine colostrum samples. Journal of Immunoassay. 19:195-207.

Handsell KL, Baumrucker CR, Kensinger RS. (1993) Effects of elevated blood insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentration upon IGF-I in bovine mammary secretions during the colostrum phase. Journal of Endocrinology. 137:223-230.

Juskevich J. (1990) Bovine Growth Hormone: Human Food Safety Evaluation. Science. 249:875-883.

Kirkpatrick CH. (1993) Structural nature and function of transfer factors. Annals New York Academy of Sciences. 685:362-8.

Marcotty C, Frankenne F, Van Beeumen J, Maghuin-Rogister G, Hennen G. (1991) Insulin-like growth I (IGF-I) from cow colostrum: Purification and characterization. Growth Regulation. 1(2):56-61.

Marquardt H, Lioubin MN, Ikeda T. (1987) Complete amino acid sequence of human transforming growth factor type beta 2. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 262:12127-12131.Miers W, Barrett E. (1998) The role of insulin and other hormones in the regulation of amino acid and protein metabolism in humans. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. 9(2-4):235-53.

Noda K, Umeda M, Ono T. (1984) Transforming growth factor activity in human colostrum. Gann. 75:109-12.

Nowak J, Olszewski J, Kozal E. (1994) Insulin and sugar concentration changes in mammary secretion in sheep during the periparturient period. Reprod. Nutritional Development. 34:3-8.

Nowak J. (1990) Insulin and glucose concentration changes in newborn piglets after suckling the colostrum from insulin administered sows. Acta Physiol. 41(7):155-62.

Nord J, Ma P, DiJohn D, Tzipori S, Tacket CO. (1990) Treatment with bovine hyperimmune colostrum cyptosporidial diarrhea in AIDS patients. AIDS. 4:581-584.

Oda S, Satoh H, Sugawara T, et al. (1989) Insulin-like growth factor-I, GH, insulin and glucagon concentrations in bovine colostrum and in plasma of dairy cows and neonatal calves around parturition. Comp. Biochemical Physiology. 94A:805-808.

Pakkanen R, Aalto J. (1997) Review paper: Growth factors and antimicrobial factors of bovine colostrum. International Dairy Journal. 7:285-297.

Pakkanen R. (1998) Determination of transforming growth factor-fl2 (TGF-fl2) in bovine colostrum samples. Journal of Immunoassay. 19:23-37.

Rosenthal S, Brown E, Brunetti A, Goldfine I. (1991) Fibroblast growth factor inhibits insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) gene expression and increases IGF-I receptor abundance in BC3H-1 muscle cells. Molecular Endocinology. 5:678-684.

Russell J, Feldman E. (1999) Insulin-like growth factor-I prevents apoptosis in sympathetic neurons exposed to high glucose. Horm Metab Res. 31:90-96.

Sara VR, Hall K. (1990) Insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins. Physiological Reviews. 70:591-606.

Shimizu M, Webster C, Morgan DO, Blau HM, Roth RA. (1986) Insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors and responses in cultured human muscle cells. American Journal of Physiology. 251:E611-5.

Shing Y, Klagsbrun M. (1987) Purification and characterization of a bovine colostrum-derived growth factor. Molecular Endocrinology. 1:335-338.

Skottner A, Arrhenius-Nyberg V, Kanje M, Fryklund L. (1990) Anabolic and tissue repair functions of recombinant insulin-like growth factor I. Acta Pediatric Scand. 367:63-66.

Sporn M, Roberts A, Shull J, Smith J, Ward J. (1983) Polypeptide transforming growth factors isolated from bovine sources and used for wound healing in vivo. Science. 219(4590):1329-31.

Tokuyama H, Tokuyama Y, Migita S. (1990) Isolation of two new proteins from bovine colostrum which stimulates epidermal growth factor-dependent colony formation of NRK-49F cells. Growth Factors. 3(2): 105-14.

Tokuyama, H. and Tokuyama, Y. (1989) Bovine colostric transforming growth facto-fI-like peptide that induces growth inhibition and changes in morphology of human osteogenic sarcoma cells (MG-63). Cell Biology International Reports. 13:251-258.

Tokuyama Y. (1993) Purification and identification of TGF-B2-related growth factor from bovine colostrum. Journal of Dairy Research. 60:99-109.

Tollefsen S, Lajara R, McCusker R, Clemmons D, Rotwein P. (1989) Insuline-like growth factors (IGF) in muscle development. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264(23):13810-7.

Tomas F, Knowles S, Owens P, et al. (1991) Increased weight gain, nitrogen retention and muscle protein synthesis following treatment of diabetic rats with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and des(1-3)IGF-I. Biochem J. 276 (Pt 2):547-54.

Ullman M, Ullman A, Sommerland H, Skottner A, Oldfors A. (1990) Effects of growth hormone on muscle regeneration and IGF-I concentration in old rats. Acta Physiological Scand. 140:521-525.

Shomali M, Wolfsthal S. (1997) The use of anti-aging hormones. Maryland Medical Journal. 46:181-186.

Watson DL, Francis GL, Ballard FJ. (1992) Factors in ruminant colostrum that influence cell growth and murine IgE antibody responses. Journal of Dairy Research. 59:369-380.


Immune Factors

Bocci V, Von Bremen K, Corradeschi F, Luzzi E, Paulesu L. (1991) What is the role of cytokines in human colostrum? Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents. 3:121-124.

Boesman-Finkelsein M, Walton NE, Finkelstein RA. (1989) Bovine lactogenic immunity against cholera toxin-related enterotoxins and Vibrio cholerae outer membranes. Infection and Immunity. 57:1227-1234.

Boesman-Finkelstein M. and Finkelstein R. (1989) Passive oral immunization of children. Lancet. 2(8675):1336.

Bogstedt AK, Johansen K, Hatta H, et al. (1996) Passive immunity against diarrhea. Acta Paediatr. 85:125-128.

Casswall T, Sarker S, Albert M, et al. (1998) Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in infants in rural Bangladesh with oral immunoglobulins from hyper-immune bovine colostrum. Ailment Pharmacol Therapies. 12:563-568.

Davidson G, Whyte P, Daniels E, et al. (1989) Passive immunization of children with bovine colostrum containing antibodies to human rotavirus. Lancet. 2(8665):709-12.

Dichtelmuller W, Lissner R. (1990) Antibodies from colostrum in oral immunotherapy. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. 28:19-23.

Ebina T, Umezu K, Ohyama S, et al. (1983) Prevention of rotavirus infection by cow colostrum containing antibody against human rotavirus. Lancet. 2(8357):1029-30.

Feldmann M, Brennan F, Maini R. Role of cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis. Annual Review of Immunology. 14:397-440, 1996.

Hanson LA, Ahlstedt S, Andersson B, et al. (1983) Mucosal Immunity. Annals New York Academy of Sciences. 83:1-20.

Hilpert H, Brussow H, Mietens C, Sidoti J, Lerner L, Werchau H. (1987) Use of bovine milk concentrate containing antibody to rotavirus to treat rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 156:158-166.

Hirmo S, et al. (1998) Characterization of Helicobacter pylori interactions with sialylglycoconjugates using a resonant mirror biosensor. Analytical Biochemistry. 257:63-6.

Hoffman M. (1992) Transferred immune cells may help fight viral infection. Immunology. 257(5067):166.

Honorio-Franca A, Carvalho M, Isaac L, Trabulsi l, Carneiro-Sampaio M. (1997) Colostral mononuclear phagocytes are able to kill enteropathogenic Escherichia coli opsonized with colostral IgA. Scandavian Journal of Immunology. 46:59-66.

Huppertz H, Rutkowski S, Busch D, Eisebit R, Lissner R, Karch H. (1999) Bovine colostrum ameliorates diarrhea in infection with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, shiga toxin producing E. coli, and E-coli expressing intimin and hemolysin. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 29:452-456.

Janusz M, Lisowski J. (1993) Proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) – an immunomodulatory peptide from ovine colostrum. Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis. 41:275-279

Jochims K, Kaup F, Drommer W, Pickel M. (1994) An immunoelectron microscopic investigation of colostral IgG absorption across the intestine of new-born calves. Research in Veterinary Science. 57:75-80.

Kelly CP, et al. (1996) Anti-Clostridium difficile bovine immunoglobulin concentrate inhibits cytotoxicity and enterotixicity of C. difficile toxins. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 40:373-379.

Kelly G. (1999) Larch arabinogalactan: Clinical relevance of a novel immune-enhancing polysaccharide. Alternative Medicine Review. 4(2):96-103.

Khazenson L, Gennad’eva T, Roshchin V, Krasheniuk A, Semenova N. (1980) Activity of bovine colostral IgG in the human digestive tract. ZH Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 9:101-106.

Kohl S, Malloy M, Pickering L, Morriss F, Adcock E, Walters D. (1978) Human colostral cytotoxicity: I. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against herpes simplex viral-infected cells mediated by colostral cells. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Immunology. 1:221-224.

Korthonen H, Suvaoja EL, Ahola-Luttilia H, et al. (1995) Bactericidal effect of bovine normal and immune serum, colostrum and milk against Helicobactor pylori. Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 78:655-662.

Lawton JW, Shortridge KF, Wong RL, Ng MH. (1979) Interferon synthesis by human colostral leucocytes. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 54:127-130.

LeFranc-Millot C, Vercaigne-Marko D, Wal J. -M, et al. (1996) Comparison of the IgE titers to bovine colostral G immunoglobulins and the F(ab’)2 fragments in sera of patients allergic to milk. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 110:156-162.

Leszek J, Inglot AD, Janusz M, Lisowski J, Krukowska K, Georgiades JA. (1999) Colostrinin: a Proline-Rich Polypeptide (PRP) Complex Isolated from Ovine Colostrum for Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. A Double – Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis. 47(6):377-85.

Lissner R, Thurmann P, Merz G, Karch, H. (1998) H. Antibody reactivity and fecal recovery of bovine immunoglobulins following oral administration of a colostrum concentrate from cows to healthy volunteers. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 36:239-245.

Loimaranta V, Carlen A, Olsson J, Tenovuo J, Syvaoja E.-L, Korhonen H. (1998) Concentrated bovine colostal whey proteins from Streptococcus mutans/Strep. sobrinus immunized cows inhibit the adherence of Strep. mutans and promote the aggregation of mutans streptococci. Journal of Dairy Research. 65:599-607.

McClead RE, Butler T, Rabbani GH. (1988) Orally Administered Bovine Colostral Anti-Cholera Toxin Antibodies: Results of Two Clinical Trials. The American Journal of Medicine. 85:811-816

Michalek SM, McGhee JR. (1977) Effective immunity to dental caries: passive transfer to rats to antibodies to streptococcus mutans elicits protection. Infection and Immunity. 17:644-650.

Michalek SM, McGhee JR, Babb JL. (1978) Effective immunity to dental caries: dose-dependent studies of secretory immunity by oral administration of Streptococcus mutans to rats. Infection and Immunity. 19:217-224.

Mitra AK, Mahalanabis D, Ashraf H, Unicomb L, Eeckels R, Tzipori S. (1995) Hyperimmune cow colostrum reduces diarrhea due to rotavirus: a double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Acta Paediatr. 84:996-1001.

Moro I, Abo T, Crago SS, Komiyama K, Mestecky J. (1985) Natural Killer Cells in Human Colostrum. Cellular Immunology. 93:467-474.

Naber P, et al. (1996) Inhibition of adhesion of Clostridium difficile to caco-2 cells. Immunology and Medical Microbioilogy. 14:205-209.

Ouwehand A, Salminen S, Skurnik M, Conway P. (1997) Inhibition of pathogen adhesion by B-lactoglobulin. International Dairy Journal. 7:685-692.

Ogra P, Losonsky G, Fishaut M. (1983) Colostrum-derived immunity and maternal-neonatal interaction. New York Academy of Science 409:82-95.

Ogra SS, Ogra PL. (1978) Immunologic aspects of human colostrum and milk. The Journal of Pediatrics. 92:546-549.

Palmer EL, Gary Jr. GW, Black R, Martin ML. (1980) Antiviral activity of colostrum and serum immunoglobulins A and G. Journal of Medical Virology. 5:123-129.

Parodi PW. (1996) milk fat components: possible chemopreventive agents for cancer and other diseases. The Australian Journal of Dairy Technology. 51:24-32.

Petschow B, Talbott R. (1994). Reduction in virus-neutralizing activity of a bovine colostrum immunglobulin concentrate by gastic acid and digestive enzymes. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 19:228-235.

Plettenberg A, Stoehr A, Stellbrink J, Albreacht H, Meigel W. (1993) A preparation from bovine colostrum in the treatment of HIV-positive patients with chronic diarrhea. Clinical Investigator. 71:42-45.

Pincus C, Nussenweig V. (1971) Regulation of the Immune Response: Suppressive and enhancing effects of passively administered antibody. Journal of Experimental Medicine. 133:987-1003.

Pironi L, Miglioli M, Ruggeri E, et al. (1990) Relationship between intestinal permeability to EDTA and inflammatory activity in asymptomatic patients with Crohn’s disease. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 35(5):582-8.

Quigley JD, Martin KR, Dowlen HH, Wallis LB, Lamar K. (1994) Immunoglobulin concentration, specific gravity, and nitrogen fractions of colostrum from Jersey cattle. Journal of Dairy Science. 77:264-269.

Rautiainen E. (1998) The prevalence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in pig herds in western Finland based on the demonstration of antibodies in colostrum by ELISA. Acta Vet Scand. 39:325-330.

Ritchie D, Becker E. (1994) Update on the management of intestinal cryptosporidiosis in AIDS. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 28:767-778.

Robert Service. (1994) Triggering the First Line of Defense. Research News. 265.

Rump JA, Arndt R, Arnold A, et al. (1992) Treatment of diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with immunoglobulins from bovine colostrum. Clinical Investigator. 70:588-594.

Saif L, Smith K. (1985) Enteric viral infections of calves and passive immunity. Journal of Dairy Science. 68:206-228.

Sandholm M, Honkanen-Buzalski T. (1979) Colostral trypsin-inhibitor capacity in different animal species. Acta Vett. Scand. 20:469-476.

Sarker S, Casswall T, Mahalanabis M, et al. (1998) Successful treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in children with immunoglobulin from immunized bovine colostrum. Pediatric Journal of Infectious Disease. 17:1149-54.

Savilahti E, Tainio VM, Salmenpera L, Arjomaa P, Kallio M, Perheentupa J, Siimes MA. (1991) Low colostral IgA associated with cow’s milk allergy. Acta Pediatr Scan. 80:1207-1213.

Selo I, Clement G, Bernard H, et al. (1999) Allergy to bovine B-lactoglobulin: specificity of human IgE to tryptic peptides. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 29:1055-1063.

Shearman D. (1972) The demonstration and function of antibodies in the gastrointestinal tract. Gut. 13(6):483-99.

Shortridge K, Lawton J, Choi E. (1990) Protective potential of colostrum and early milk against prospective influenza viruses. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 36(2):94-5.

Siber G. (1992) Immune globulin to prevent nosocomial infection. New England Journal of Medicine. 327(4):269-71.

Stephen W, Dichtelmuller H, Lissner R. (1990) Antibodies from colostrum in oral immunotherapy. Journal of Chemical Clinical Biochemistry. 28:19-23.

Staroscik K, Janusz M, Zimecki M, Wieczorek Z, Lisowski J. (1983) Immunologically active nonapeptide fragment of a proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum: amino acid sequence and immunoregulatory properties. Molecular Immunology. 12:1277-1282.

Swarbrick ET. (1992) The handling of ingested antigens. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 47(3):276-83.

Tacket CO, Binion SB, Bostwick E, Losonsky G, Roy MJ, Edelman R. Efficacy of bovine milk immunoglobulin concentrate in preventing illness after Shigella flexneri challenge. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 47:276-283 (1992).

Takahashi, T. and et al. (1998) Effects of Orally Ingested Bifidobacterium longum on the Mucosal IgA response of Mice to Dietary Antigens. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 62(1):10-5.

Tejada-Simon M, Lee J, Ustunol Z, Pestka J. (1999) Ingestion of yoghurt containing lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacterium to potentiate immunoglobulin A responses to cholera toxin in mice. Journal of Dairy Science. 82:649-660.

Tyler J, Stevens B, Hostetler D, Holle J, Denbigh J. (1999) Colostral immunoglobulin concentrations in holstein and guernsey cows. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 60(9):1136-9

Tzipori S, Roberton D, Chapman C. (1986) Remission of diarrhea due to cryptosporidiosis in an immunodeficient child treated with hyperimmune bovine colostrum. British Medical Journal. 293(6557):1276-7.

Ulcova-Gallova Z, Fialova P, Krauz V. (1994) Immunologic factors in human colostrum and milk. Casopis Lekaru Ceskych. 133:275-276.

Ungar BLP, Ward DJ, Fayer R, Quinn CA. (1990) Cessation of Cryptosporidium-associated diarrhea in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient after treatment with hyperimmune bovine colostrum. Gastroenterology. 98:486-489.

Ushijima H, Dairaku M, Honnma H, Mukoyama A, Kitamura T. (1990) Immunoglobulin components and anti-viral activities in bovine colostrum. 64:274-279.

Veselsky L, Cechova D, Jonakova V. (1978) Secretion and Immunochemical Properties of the Trypsin Inhibitor from Bovine Colostrum. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. Physiol. Chem. 359:873-878.

Waldman RH, Stone J, Lazzell V, et al. (1983) Oral route as method for immunizing against mucosal pathogens. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Jun 30;409:510.

Walker M. (1999) Bovine colostrum offers broad-spectrum benefits for wide-ranging ailments. Medical Journalist Report of Innovative Biologics: Townsend Letters for Doctors and Patients. 74-80.

Walker M. (1997) Homeostatic soil organisms support immune system functions from the ground up. Townsend Letters for Doctor and Patients.

Walker m. (1995) Infectious bugs are back but there’s a remedy. Townsend Letters for Doctors and Patients.

Ylitalo S, Uhari M, Rasi S, Pudas J, Leppaluoto J. (1998) Rotaviral antibodies in the treatment of acute rotaviral gastroenteritis. Acta Paediatr. 87:264-267.

Yolken RH, Losonsky GA, Vonderfecht S, Leister F, Wee SB. (1985) Antibody to human rotavirus in cow’s milk. The New England Journal of Medicine. 312:605-610.


.McConnell, M. A., Buchan, G. A. A., Borissenko, M. V., Brooks, H. J. L. (2001)
A Comparison of IgG and IgG1 Activity in an Early Milk Concentrate from Non-Immunised Cows and a Milk from Hyperimmunised Animals.
Food Research International 34 (2001) 255 - 261.


Intestinal Permeability

Bitzan MM, Gold BD, Philpott DJ, et al. (1998) Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter mustelae binding to lipid receptors by bovine colostrum. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 177:955-961.

Bjarnason I, Peters TJ, Wise RJ. (1984) The Leaky gut of alcoholism: Possible route of entry for toxic compounds. The Lancet. 1(8370):179-82.

Campieri M, Gionchetti P. (1999) Probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease: New insight to pathogenesis or a possible therapeutic alternative. Gastroenterology. 116:1246-1260.

Crissinger K, Kvietys P, Granger D. (1990) Pathophysiology of gastrointestinal mucosal permeability. Journal of Internal Medicine. 228:145-154.

Deitch E. (1990) The Role of intestinal barrier failure and bacterial translocation in the development of systemic infection and multiple organ failure. Archives of Surgery. 125(3):403-4.

Doe W. An overview of intestinal immunity and malabsorption. American Journal of Medicine. 67:1077-1084, 1979.

McGauley GA (1987) Abnormal intestinal permeability: An aetiological factor in chronic psychiatric disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry. 150:853-856.

Playford RJ, Floyd DN, Macdonald CE, et al. (1999) Bovine colostrum is a health food supplement which prevents NSAID induced gut damage. Gut. 44:653-658.

Rooney PJ, Jenkins RT, Buchanan WW. (1990) A short review of the relationship between intestinal permeability and inflammatory joint disease. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology. 8:75-83.

Sangild P. (1999) Intestinal Macromolecule Absorption in the Fetal Pig after Infusion of Colostrum in Utero. Pediatric Research. 45:595-602.

Van der Hulst R, Van Kreel B, Meyenfeldt M, et al. (1993) Glutamine and the preservation of gut integrity. Lancet 341:1363-1365.

Werbach MR. (1998) Intestinal health relieves rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition Science News. 3:396.

Walker WA. (1975) Antigen absorption from the small intestine and gastrointestinal disease. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 22:731-746.


Lactoferrin

Abe H, Saito H, Miyakawa H, et al. (1991) Heat stability of bovine lactoferrin at acidic pH. Journal of Dairy Science. 74:65-71.

Applemelk BJ, An YQ, Geerts M, et al. (1994) Lactoferrin is a lipid A-binding protein. Infection and Immunity. 62:2628-2632.

Baker EN, Anderson BF, Baker HM, et al. (1994) Three-dimensional structure of lactoferrin in various functional states. Lactoferrin: Structure and Function. 1-12.

Bellamy W, Takase M, Yamauchi K, Wakabayashi H, Kawase K, Tomita M. (1992) Identification of the bactericidal domain of lactoferrin. Biochemica Biophys Acta. 1121:130-136.

Buchta R. (1991) Ovine lactoferrin: Isolation from colostrum and characterization. Journal of Dairy Research. 211-218.

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Other

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Buescher E, Mcllheran S. (1988) Antioxidant properties of human colostrum. Pediatric Research. 24(1):14-9.

Chaumeil C, Liotet S, Kogbe O. (1994) Treatment of severe eye dryness and problematic eye lesions with enriched bovine colostrum lactoserum. Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film, and Dry Eye Syndromes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 350:595-9.

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Dillehay D, Webb S, Schmelz E, Merrill A. (1994) Dietary sphingomyelin inhibits 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in CF1 mice. Journal of Nutrition. 124(5):615-20.

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Wound Healing

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Supplement for Human Use

Dr Nikki-Marie Welch. MD from Duke University and the John Hopkins University School of Medicine, reports that her patients generally thrive after taking colostrum: "their condition usually improves substantially, and they feel a greater sense of well-being along with enhanced energy and stamina".

Wilson, D.C. and James, N.D. " Immune System Breakthrough: Colostrum" Journal Of Longevity, Vol. 4 (p2), 1998

Butler, J.E. "Immunoglobulins of the Mammary Secretions" Lactation: A Comprehensive Treatise, Eds. B.L. Larson and V.R. Smith Vol. 3 (pp217-252). Academic Press, New York, 1974.

Francis, G.L. et. al. "Insulin-like growth factors 1(IGF-1) and 2(IGF-2) in bovine colostrum" Biochemistry Journal Vol. 251 (pp95-103), 1988

Palmer, E.L. et. al. "Antiviral Activity of Colostrum and Serum Immunoglobulins A and G" Medical Virology, Vol. 5 (pp123-129), 1980

Playford, RJ, et. al. "Bovine colostrum is a health food supplement which prevents NSAID induced gut damage" Gut Vol 44(5) (pp653-8), May1999

Rona, Zoltan, M.D. "Bovine Colostrum Immunity, and The Ageing Process" Nature's Impact, August 1998


DISCLAIMER:
The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food And Drug Administration. It is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent disease. The statements are for informational purposes only and is it not meant to replace the services or recommendations of a physician or qualified health care practitioner. Those with health problems or pregnancy are specifically advised that they should consult their physician before taking colostrum or any nutritional supplement.

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